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DRUG – GENE PROFILE
“Promoting drug safety and treatment precision based upon unique genetic makeup”
Get to know “Pharmacogenomic Test”
Pharmacogenomic test is one of the core elements of precision medicine aiming at enhancing drugs’ effectiveness and safety best suited for each individual hinging upon unique genetic profile. Mounting evidence reveals that a number of genes diversely affect a person’s response to drugs. Drug-Gene Profile test is a pharmacogenomic test to identify the role of an individual’s genome in drug response. It analyzes how the genetic makeup of people influences their response to a variety of drugs, allowing effective and safe medications to be prescribed while minimizing the risks of drug hypersensitivity reactions. This test can be carried out either for multiple genes responsible for different drugs or specific genes affecting certain medications. For instance, alterations of certain genes substantially predispose an individual to severe drug reaction or hypersensitivity whereas some genetic variations are used to predict drug metabolisms and responses, including genetic influences on treatment failure. Therefore, pharmacogenomic testing allows for the detection of genomic factors linked to drug responses before initiating treatment, enabling the doctors to choose appropriate medicines and dosage regimens at which high degree of safety and effectiveness are fully ensured. •
The importance of Pharmacogenomic Test
- Assist in drug selection to make the best therapeutic choice: Advancements in genomic medicine intends to promote precision in both diagnostic approaches and treatment modalities. In fact, precision medicine improves treatment effectiveness while limiting undesired side effects. Aiming to tailor medical treatment to each person by determining gene-related drug response and resistance, pharmatogenomic test has become an essential part of standard treatment guidelines of several diseases, e.g. cancers, cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases.
- Guide for appropriate dosage adjustment: After the medications are administered to the body by oral route, injections or other administrative routes, drug’s journey through the body involves different processes, starting from absorption, distribution, metabolism to excretion or elimination. These processes might vary among individuals due to genetic variations. Genetic variants can clinically affect drug metabolism. Since these variants diversely modify the rates at which certain drugs are activated or broken down, therefore they are used to predict whether certain drugs or drug doses are likely to be effective, benefiting drug selection and dosage adjustment.
- Prevent adverse drug reactions and hypersensitivity: Although the incidences of severe drug reactions or hypersensitivity are considerably low, it can be life-threatening once it develops. Genetic sequencing technology used in pharmacogenomics helps to detect a numerous forms of genetic alterations that lead to severe reactions, e.g. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) induced by some medications, such as uric lowering agent. Thus, pharmacogenomics-guided therapy could decrease the chance of side effects or dependency and prevent severe drug reaction, enabling the patients to avoid specific drugs.
- Speed time to achieving the optimal therapeutic benefit of selected drug:
Currently, drug selection and dosage determination are based upon general population data, both drug efficacy and safety. Although a number of medications might be “one size fits all”, some other medications do not work exactly the same way for everyone. This is because genes diversely affect a person’s response to drugs. Identifying drug-gene response allows the doctors to select the right medication with the right dosage, speeding time to achieving the therapeutic benefit of prescribed drug.
Pharmacogenomic Test and drug lists
Currently, pharmacogenomic test can be applied to detect drug-gene responses in more than 500 medications covering several drug groups. Due to genetic sequencing advancements and updated genomic databases as well as ongoing clinical researches, it is believed that drug-gene relations in more medications will be discovered in the near future using pharmacogenomics test. By providing information on drug selection, dosage adjustment, drug efficacy and resistance as well as the risk of developing side effects, pharmacogenomic test covers medications, such as:
- Antiplatelet and anticoagulant
- Lipid lowering agents
- Sleeping pills and psychiatric drugs
- Anticonvulsant drugs,
- Immunosuppressive drugs
- Certain medications used in cancers, heart diseases, infectious diseases, peptic ulcers and allergy, etc.
Why should I get Pharmagogenomic Test at Bangkok Hospital
At Bangkok Hospital, our pharmacogenomic test using the Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique generates highly accurate results with high degree of efficacy and safety. Potential genes affecting drug response, including metabolism, adverse drug reaction and hypersensitivity can be fully analyzed, enabling the doctor to make better informed decisions about medication selection hinging on each individual’s genetic profile.
Tailor Your Life.
Promote drug safety and treatment precision based upon unique genetic makeup
PATTARIYA CHANTARASAP (Clinical Pharmacist)
Pharmacy Department, Bangkok Hospital